Ninety years since the first Tampax, why aren’t there better menstrual products? (2023)

When Emma Cihanowyz was in middle school, she and her friends used code words to talk about their periods. If someone asked for a “missile”, it meant they were looking for a tampon. “Shields” meant pads. “We spoke like we were at war,” she said. “The biggest thing for us was making sure that we could take products to the bathroom without the boys seeing.”

Now Cihanowyz is 21, a senior at Penn State, and a student activist who campaigns for free sanitary products in all campus bathrooms. She’s no longer afraid of boys, or anyone, knowing she’s having her period. Cihanowyz calls herself a “menstrual fairy”, who walks around school with a bag full of tampons, liners, pads and cups, just in case she runs into anyone who needs a spare.

The products Cihanowyz carries have been around for over a century: the first pads were developed in the 1880s. Tampons and menstrual cups came around in the 1930s, with the first modern tampon designed by Tampax patented in 1931 (although makeshift tampons made from rags or reeds had been in use for millennia). Why are there still so few good options available?

Ninety years since the first Tampax, why aren’t there better menstrual products? (1)

Cihanowyz chalks the lack of innovation up to what one of her professors, the gender studies academic Jillian Wood, calls the menstrual concealment imperative. Young girls are conditioned to view their periods as dirty and shameful, the theory goes, so they grow into adults who believe that menstruation should be a private, silent experience. Essentially, people take what they can get and shut up about it.

“When you walk into CVS, menstruation products are all the way to the back, like they’re hidden,” Cihanowyz said. “I remember the fear when I was a teen of being in that aisle. I just walked in and grabbed the first thing I saw, at eye level, especially if it looked like it was tiny and I could hide it.”

Not everyone in the US can afford period products: an estimated 16.9 million menstruators live in poverty, sometimes having to choose between buying food and pads. Those who can may still be using the first type of pad or tampon they ever bought.

In the 2010s, there was some innovation marketed to millennials who craved a more comfortable way to deal with menstruation. Period underwear brands led by Thinx cropped up, often using suggestive advertising like yonic-looking fruit to hawk the panties. (Knix, Aisle and Bambody are other popular labels.) Suddenly, menstruators had a bit more choice, though many still felt that their best choices were uncomfortable tampons or bulky pads.

Thinx period underwear was supposed to be ‘non-toxic’. Now customers feel betrayedRead more
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“What someone uses for menstruation gets decided early on, and people typically stick to one brand, or product,” said Ida Tin, the co-founder of Clue, a period tracking app. “But what you need when you’re 12 is not the same as what you need just after you gave birth. Or what you want on a camping trip is different than what you use when you’re at home.”

According to Candice Matthews, who invests in the period care brand Femi Secrets, the average woman will only switch menstrual products four times at most in her life. “If that’s the case, a brand has got her for 10 years,” she said.

Such devotion may be why people feel so emotionally connected to whatever they use. In January, Thinx settled a class-action suit with customers regarding its supposedly “organic, sustainable, and non-toxic” panties. Though the company denied any wrongdoing in court, it faced allegations that the product contained “the presence of short chain per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (‘PFAS’)”, also known as “forever chemicals”.

About 1 million people use Thinx. Many began questioning what they would turn to in the wake of the settlement. “Finding a menstrual product you like is so insanely frustrating because not everything works for everybody,” one customer told the Guardian at the time.

Thinx is not the only period product that potentially contains toxic chemicals. The FDA classifies menstrual products as “low- or medium-high risk”, which means the products are not subject to extensive testing, and that manufacturers do not need to disclose every material they use. A series of lab tests conducted by watchdog groups found the presence of PFAS in 48% of sanitary pads and panty liners, 22% of tampons and 65% of period underwear.

‘You can find more information about what ingredients are in a fucking Q-Tip than a tampon’

Activists say that the stigma around periods, and the idea that a woman’s cycle should be a hidden, discreet experience, means that people are not conditioned to take a closer look at what’s inside their products. “If you convince customers that this is a ‘bad’ topic to talk about, you’re disincentivizing customers from giving any real feedback, and setting a very low expectation for the quality of products,” said Nadya Okamoto, founder of the period care brand August. “That’s why you can find more information about what ingredients are in a fucking Q-Tip than a tampon.”

One way to tackle that stigma: Okamoto, who is 25, regularly posts videos of herself putting in tampons and changing her pad on TikTok, where she has 4 million followers. Her videos regularly include closeup shots of the blood and clots that appear on her panty liners.

Okamoto is used to the app flagging her videos as “sensitive” content; many of her TikToks have disclaimers in front of them that read: “Some people may find this video disturbing.”

“A lot of my videos get banned or taken down, but people post surgery videos on TikTok and that’s totally fine,” Okamoto said. “It doesn’t surprise me, but it is frustrating.”

(Video) How to remove a menstrual cup mess free #shorts

When Okamoto started her brand, she had plans to tackle the issue of plastic usage and excess waste that comes with using disposable products. Plastic menstrual products generate more than 200,000 tonnes of waste a year, and the majority of single-use hygiene products are made of plastic that can take up to 800 years to decompose. Okamoto initially thought she would sell menstrual cups or period underwear. But then she started talking to people about their menstruation.

“Ninety-nine per cent of people were only interested in tampons and pads,” Okamoto said. “They cared about sustainability, but they were like, ‘I don’t want to use anything that requires me to touch my period blood. Some of my most progressive, feminist friends think that reusing any item for their period will cause a disease or illness.”

Most period underwear should not be put in the washing machine – which means that its users also have to get close to their own period blood, when they wash it by hand in their sinks. “In order for someone to be comfortable with period underwear, they have to be comfortable with their own period blood,” Okamoto said. “They’re getting blood on their hands, or washing it in the shower. Those people may have a closer and deeper relationship with their bodies than people who prefer tampons or pads.”

‘The market has failed women’

Ida Tin coined the term “femtech” in 2016 to describe the boom in tech startups that centered on women’s health. “It was a word that was needed back then, because people are still using it in 2023,” Tin said. “Now, investors can more easily recognize that there’s a big movement happening.”

Some female founders have taken issue with the term, saying it sidelines periods and fertility as niche “women’s issues”. Investment in femtech brands has declined after a peak in 2018, when femtech companies received roughly 6.6% of digital health funding. By 2020, that had declined to 1.8%.

Ninety years since the first Tampax, why aren’t there better menstrual products? (2)

“We’ve underinvested in this space,” Matthews, the femtech investor, said. “The market has failed women because a lot of male investors are still uncomfortable talking about something that happens once a month.”

Matthews added that most men who fund period product development do not really want to hear about any innovation. She thinks the best way to pitch menstrual products to men is to remind them the items make for a great subscription service.

But a new crop of startups are reimagining what’s possible – if they can get the funding.

Vyld, a Berlin-based brand founded by Ines Schiller, uses seaweed kelp to make its tampons, or “kelpons”. Though Vyld has yet to come to market and is still in the research and development process, Schiller hopes the brand can satisfy shoppers’ desire for a period product that is both eco-friendly and leak-resistant.

“I always bought organic cotton period products, but I was so disappointed that they leaked,” Schiller said. “Seaweed is a natural absorbent, and it’s completely biodegradable.”

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Another simple idea is Egal Pads on a Roll. The Massachusetts-based startup creates pads that are packaged exactly the same as a roll of toilet paper, which makes them perfect for public bathrooms. Egal sells to distributors who have contracts with schools and other public buildings.

Since October, 16 states and Washington DC have passed legislation requiring free period products be available in public schools. That’s good business for Egal, but not all of these bills are successful. In March, Idaho’s Republican-controlled state house of representatives failed to approve legislation that would have required public schools to offer free period products. Thirty-five Republicans opposed the move on the basis that it was, essentially, too woke. Representative Heather Scott told the AP that the policy was “very liberal” and asked: “Why are our schools obsessed with the private parts of our children?”

“Whenever I hear that, I ask why we treat this one bodily function differently than peeing and pooping,” said Penelope Finnie, the CEO of Egal. “It’s only the adults who talk like that. When I speak to students about free period products, they’re almost nonplussed. They wonder why it hasn’t been around before.”

More hi-tech are products like Emm, a “smart menstrual device” that consists of a reusable cup that someone can apply with a separate, tampon-like applicator. The cup has a string that’s similar to a tampon, so it can be pulled out without the wearer having to put their fingers inside their body. When it’s not in use, the cup lives inside a UV cleaner that can sterilize it in minutes.

The cup is made of medical-grade silicone. Inside it contains sensors that track information about a user’s flow, or when the cup is about to overfill. That information gets uploaded to an app.

Ninety years since the first Tampax, why aren’t there better menstrual products? (3)

The Emm CEO, Jenny Button, said that menstruators can share this information with their OB-GYNs to learn more about their reproductive system. “If you read medical literature, you can see that flow rate and volume directly correlate to conditions like endometriosis, polycystic ovaries or fertility issues, but there’s no accurate method of data capture for those metrics,” she said.

Button is based in Bristol, England, but is well aware that period tracking apps have been the subject of much scrutiny in post-Roe America. Police in many US states can access period data without a warrant, which could put people who seek abortions at risk for prosecution. In February, Virginia’s Republican-controlled house of representatives shelved a bill that would have made it illegal for authorities to seize menstrual data stored on computers and other devices.

Button said the brand would make the data it collects anonymous: “Everyone should have autonomous rights over their data. That’s a red line.” She added that Emm would encrypt users’ data to protect their identities.

(Video) The ‘tampon tax’ is coming to an end

One of the co-founders of Marlow, a startup based in Canada, wanted to create more comfortable menstrual products, because tampons always hurt to insert. Her doctor once told her to spit on tampons to make them easier to put in, so the team created products that can be dipped in water-based lubricant.

“We were shocked and we couldn’t believe that was the only advice the doctor had,” said Nadia Ladak, a co-founder. “We learned that some people were already using lube at home for tampons, but it was such a messy process: it almost feels like arts and crafts in the bathroom stall.” Marlowe’s lube comes in a bottle that coats the tampon with one dip.

Marlow has played well on TikTok, where the company has 49,000 followers and regularly posts videos of people answering the type of period questions older generations might have saved for their older sisters. “We’re getting people off of autopilot,” Ladak said, “so they’re not just putting up with the first thing they see on the shelf.”

Not every promising period brand gets a happy ending. One UK-based brand, Calla Lily, created Tampliners. That product was exactly what it sounded like: a tampon connected to a pantyliner. Thang Vo-Ta founded the company after learning about the design from a doctor who told him that two-thirds of women wear both tampons and a liner some days to prevent leaks.

In 2020, Time magazine called the Tampliner one of the best inventions of the year – shown on the page right next to the Covid vaccine. Vogue dubbed it “one of the best eco-friendly brands worth trying right now”. Cosmopolitan said it was a “gamechanger”.

At the time, Calla Lily was selling online in the UK. About 85% of menstrual products are still purchased in a store, so it was crucial that the company get picked up by a major retailer. “I spoke to the heads of femcare at Walmart, Target, CVS, and they all thought it was amazing and wanted to stock it,” Thang said.

But every major retailer, including a large pharmacy chain in the UK, declined to sell the product. Thang believes this is because stores did not want to upset the sales of established legacy brands that sold both products.

Calla Lily stopped selling its tampliners in 2022. The company now uses the same product model as a way for pregnant women to vaginally insert the hormone progesterone, which is thought to reduce the chance of miscarriage.

“We really thought we were going to make it,” Thang said. “We tried to make it work with viral videos, or influencers, but ultimately we just needed to be sold in a major retailer. But I really do hope that more products keep coming out, because there needs to be a hell of a whole lot more innovation in the space, so we can all benefit.”


Ninety years since the first Tampax, why aren’t there better menstrual products? ›

Last year, Tampax introduced the Pocket Pearl, a small tampon designed for women on the go. The company said last year that the new tampon was designed to help women seamlessly incorporate their period into their busy lives.

Have Tampax changed? ›

Last year, Tampax introduced the Pocket Pearl, a small tampon designed for women on the go. The company said last year that the new tampon was designed to help women seamlessly incorporate their period into their busy lives.

Why are tampons better then pads? ›

Many girls start out using pads, but might want to use tampons when they do sports or go swimming. Tampons also are easy to store in a purse or pocket. Another advantage to tampons is that they can't be felt because they're inside the body. A pad may feel bulky to some girls.

How did ladies deal with periods in the 1800s? ›

1800s to 1900: Turn of the century – From rags to riches? In European and North American societies through most of the 1800s, homemade menstrual cloths made out of flannel or woven fabric were the norm–think “on the rag.”

What did they use for tampons in the old days? ›

What did women use before pads and tampons? It may be difficult to believe, but once upon a time none of these modern period products existed. Before the 1800s, women made do with softened papyrus leaves, lint wrapped around a stick, rolled up grass and sea sponges.

What is going on with Tampax? ›

Several tampon manufacturers have confirmed that they are indeed facing supply issues in 2022, leading to a tampon shortage. According to Time, Procter & Gamble, which makes Tampax, said it was having issues sourcing raw materials.

What is the oldest tampon? ›

In 1931, Earl Haas, a physician in Colorado, developed a cardboard applicator tampon that was meant to absorb menstrual blood. He made the tampon inside the applicator from tightly bound strip of dense cotton that was attached to a string for easy removal.

Are tampons more cleaner than pads? ›

Better hygiene

Most women feel that using tampons makes them feel cleaner. Tampons do not make you overly conscious about your flow. Pads are messier and can smell foul if worn for too long.

Is it better to wear a pad or tampon at night? ›

You should change your tampon regularly, about every four to eight hours. If you have a very heavy flow, changing your tampon as often as needed is never an issue. If you know you'll sleep longer than eight hours, use a sanitary pad, period underwear or menstrual cup.

Does period end faster with pads or tampons? ›

Some people might feel like their periods end faster when they use tampons, while others say that using pads seemingly shortens their period length because pads do not hamper period flow. However, there is no scientific evidence that either tampons or pads can make your period end faster.

What does the Bible say about periods? ›

In the third book of the Pentateuch or Torah and particularly in the Code of legal purity (or Provisions for clean and unclean) of the Mosaic Law (Leviticus 11:1-15:33), it is stated that a woman undergoing menstruation is perceived as unclean for seven days and whoever touches her shall be unclean until evening (see ...

How did medieval girls deal with periods? ›

The short answer is that most people with periods used cloth rags as a kind of DIY sanitary pad. Linen was a particularly good material for that purpose. But there's also evidence that some people used a particularly absorbent type of bog moss.

What did they call periods in the old days? ›

Women use rags as makeshift pads, leading to the term “on the rag” becoming slang for menstruation.

What did Native Americans use for tampons? ›

Ancient times: wooden tampons.

In the book, authors Elissa Stein and Susan Kim also recount how women wrapped lint around wood to create tampons in ancient Greece and Rome. In ancient Japan, women turned to paper to absorb blood, while the Native Americans made pads out of moss and buffalo skin.

Why do they call it a period? ›

“Period” is rooted in the Greek words “peri” and “hodos” (periodos) meaning “around” and “way/path.” This eventually turned into the Latin “periodus” meaning “recurring cycle.” Use of the English term “period” to describe menstruation began in the early 1800s (1).

How did periods start in the Bible? ›

The topic of menstruation arises in the Bible in several different contexts. It figures tangentially in one early biblical narrative, in connection with a ruse by the matriarch Rachel. In biblical legal texts, it appears a source of ritual impurity and as the basis for a sexual prohibition.

What happened to the old Kotex tampons? ›

The decision to discontinue U by Kotex® Security tampons was strictly a business decision. Security fans can check out the rest of the Security product line up, including pads and liners, at their favorite retail outlet.

Why did they stop making scented tampons? ›

Why is this important? Fragrance or scents can contain dozens of chemicals, some of which have been linked to cancer; reproductive harm like infertility and birth defects; allergic reactions and other health concerns.

Why are Tampax so expensive? ›

How the Cost of Tampons Adds Up. Even though tampons and other period products are an essential need for women, consumers still have to pay a sales tax on them in 35 states. The average sales tax in the US is 5%, so a $7 box of tampons will cost about 35 cents in taxes.

Who invented the tampon man or woman? ›

In 1931, Dr. Earle Haas developed and patented the first modern-day applicator tampon. Yet it was a woman, Gertrude Tendrich, who bought the patent from Haas and began producing cardboard applicator tampons. Tendrich sewed each tampon from her home until she expanded her business into the now-famous brand Tampax.

Can a 6 year old wear a tampon? ›

There is no minimum age for tampon usage. If adolescents want to use tampons, they can usually begin using them as soon as their menstrual cycle starts.

How many tampons does a woman use in her life? ›

It's estimated that up to 86% of women use tampons, up to 72% use pads, and 75% use panty liners. Most premenopausal women use menstrual hygiene products on a monthly basis and it is estimated that a woman will use up to 16,000 tampons in her lifetime.

Why does my tampon string get blood first? ›

If you notice your tampons get soaked through in a couple hours, or you see blood on the string when you change it after a short time, you might need a larger size. You may need to size down if the tampon is mostly dry after wearing it for a few hours.

What happens if you don't change your pad for 24 hours? ›

No matter how light your flow is, or even if there is no flow, bacteria can build up. Changing your pad every 3 or 4 hours (more if your period is heavy) is good hygiene and helps prevent bad odors.

Why do people free bleed? ›

Free bleeding has been used to challenge period stigma and taboos, to protest high prices of period products, and to draw attention to the environmental issues relating to disposable pads and tampons.

Why can't you wear a tampon during surgery? ›

Please only wear a pad on surgery day—tampons increase your risk of infection.

What should we not do in periods? ›

Things you should avoid

Consumption of excess salt causes water retention that leads to bloating during your period,” said Dr Patil. In fact, also avoid spicy food since it can upset your stomach and cause acid refluxes. “Avoid drinks like coffee, energy drinks etc as they can cause headaches and constipation.

Is it OK to leave a tampon in all day and night Why or why not? ›

The instructions on your tampon box are clear: You should never keep the same tampon in for longer than eight hours. If you leave it in longer than that, you risk toxic shock syndrome and other health concerns. If you really want to be on the safe side, though, you may want to change your tampon even more often.

Does drinking water help your period end faster? ›

Stay hydrated

If your water intake is below eight glasses a day, give yourself a boost during your period—this will help you experience fewer cramps and back aches. It can help move your cycle along more quickly, too.

Does lemon water make your period end faster? ›

No. Drinking a shot of lemon juice won't delay your period or make it stop.

Is free bleeding better for you? ›

Experts note that free bleeding has no proven health benefits. There are several anecdotal ones, though. People have experienced reduced menstrual cramping and tend to feel less discomfort. If you switch from tampons to free bleeding, there's also a reduced risk of toxic shock syndrome (TSS).

What do guys have instead of periods? ›

According to one study, around 26 % of men experience these regular “man periods.” Men have hormonal cycles. While they may not be the same type of “monthly” cycles that women have, men have hormonal cycles. Typically, testosterone levels are higher in the morning and lower at night.

Where in the Bible does it say not to touch a woman on her period? ›

"`When a woman has her regular flow of blood, the impurity of her monthly period will last seven days, and anyone who touches her will be unclean till evening. "`Anything she lies on during her period will be unclean, and anything she sits on will be unclean.

What does the Bible say about feminine hygiene? ›

According to the Bible, a woman who is menstruating or who has pathological vaginal bleeding is unclean. Anybody who touches such a woman's bed or her personal things is also regarded as unclean and should therefore, wash carefully.

What's the longest someone has had their period? ›

Chloe Christos got her first period at age 14...and it lasted until she was 19.

How did Romans deal with periods? ›

In ancient Rome, women with heavy menstrual bleeding would be treated by applying ligatures to the groin and to the armpits, thus blocking off blood flow throughout the body. It was theorized this also resulted in the reduction of blood flow to the uterus.

What was a period called in 1800s? ›

The Victorian Period (And Beyond)

From the 1890s to the early 1980s, people used sanitary belts, which basically were reusable pads that attached to a belt worn around the waist – and yes, they were as uncomfortable as they sound.

Is there a thing called a white period? ›

Thick, white discharge can occur throughout your menstrual cycle. This discharge is known as leukorrhea, and it's completely normal. The discharge may start out thinner in the days leading up to ovulation, or when an egg is released. During ovulation, the discharge or mucus may become very thick and mucus-like.

What did people think periods were? ›

In the ancient civilizations of the Babylonian, Hindu, and Chinese, menstruation was viewed as a sign of fertility and a positive omen for the home. The Aztecs and Mayans believed that the menstruating woman was considered to be the most important person, who was treated with respect by society.

How did ancient China deal with periods? ›

In ancient China women dealt with their periods was by using what were essentially sandbags. They'd put sand in the cloth, and make sure it was tightly bound. Then it would be used as a pad.

What is the difference between Tampax Pearl and normal Tampax? ›

The packaging for Tampax Radiant is designed to be user-friendly, kind to the environment, and convenient. On the other hand, Tampax Pearl is more affordable yet provides the same level of comfort as regular Tampax tampons. It is up to you to decide which option to go with.

Why was Tampax Ultra discontinued? ›

The company said that dropping Ultra tampons, the most absorbent version, was a business decision. There were no health issues, such as reports of toxic shock syndrome, that led to the decision, which was made last September.

Why are Tampax using plastic applicators? ›

Hygiene protection, such as tampons, is a very personal choice and we design our products with girls and women's needs in mind. While there will many who prefer to use non-applicator or cardboard applicators, there are others who prefer to use plastic applicators as they are more comfortable and easier to insert.

Why doesn't my tampon fit anymore? ›

Tight pelvic floor muscles can be a big cause because it can push out your tampon, making it feel like it won't stay in. In fact, a weak pelvic floor or vaginal walls with less support can also make your tampon difficult to stay in.

What's the difference between green and orange Tampax? ›

Yellow for Regular absorbency (box contains 18 or 36 tampons) Green for Super absorbency (box contains 18 or 36 tampons) Orange for Super Plus absorbency (box contains 18 or 36 tampons)

What is special about Tampax Pearl? ›

Tampax Pearl's MotionFit allows the tampon to gently expand to fit to your body's shape and, together with the LeakGuard braid, helps prevent leaks. With a purse resistant wrapper that is easy to open and quiet, Tampax Pearl allows for full discretion. Tampax Pearl tampons have been gynaecologically tested.

What was the old tampon brand? ›

Rely was a brand of superabsorbent tampons made by Procter & Gamble starting in 1975.

What is the heaviest tampon size? ›

Tampons sizes correspond to flow absorption, rather than the size of the tampon itself. The absorbency of different sizes are: light (3mL), regular (5mL), and super (12mL). It's always best to choose the lightest tampon size that works for your flow.

What are the disadvantages of Tampax? ›

Tampons, are associated with an increased risk of menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a rare life-threatening medical condition that occurs when normal bacteria in your system release toxins. Anyone can get TSS - men, women and children - but half the reported cases of TSS are associated with women using tampons.

What do they call tampons in England? ›

This disgusting term was one of Heather's favorites. It's funny that Americans focus on the product (rag meaning tampon or pad, one imagines), while the Brits have evoked a vivid image of the blood and uterine lining that come out during that time of the month.

Do Europeans use tampons? ›

Pads & Tampons in Europe. Tampons in Europe are generally easy to find and available in several different sizes. However, most European tampons do not use an applicator, so you may need to visit a few shops before you find a brand with an applicator. Pads are easily available across the continent.

Why am I so tight down there? ›

Many women experience feelings of vaginal tightness due to lack of arousal before intercourse or hormonal changes due to childbirth, breast-feeding, and menopause. Permanent loss of vaginal tightness is also a myth.

Why does my tampon only fill up halfway? ›

When your period flows out of the little hole in the cervix, it tracks along the side of the tampon rather than the central top area so the blood only appears on one side of the tampon. No worries!

Do tampons fit differently after childbirth? ›

Once you venture back into tampon insertion, you may need to use different absorbency than what you used before. And if you gave birth vaginally, you might want to use a larger tampon for a few months. Your vaginal muscles just pushed out a whole baby, after all, and your pelvic floor needs time to recover!


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